$value) if ($value['eid'] == $eid) return $value; return null; } function RecommendedEntry_updateIndexFile ($eid_updated, $eid, $direction) { $filename = sprintf ($_SERVER['DOCUMENT_ROOT'].'/ReData/%d.txt', $eid_updated); file_exists ($filename) || touch ($filename); $fp = @fopen ($filename, 'r+'); if ($fp) { if (flock ($fp, LOCK_EX | LOCK_NB)) { $ret = ''; $not_found = 1; while (! feof ($fp) && ($buf = fgets ($fp))) { list ($_eid, $_n0, $_n1) = preg_split ("[\t\r\n]", $buf); if ($eid == $_eid) { $not_found = 0; $direction ? $_n1++ : $_n0++; } $ret .= sprintf ("%d\t%d\t%d\n", $_eid, $_n0, $_n1); } $not_found && $ret .= sprintf ("%d\t%d\t%d\n", $eid, 1 - $direction, $direction); rewind ($fp); fwrite ($fp, $ret, strlen ($ret)); } fclose ($fp); } } function RecommendedEntry_incoming () { $eid_prev = $_COOKIE['mtrcmnd_eid']; if (isset ($eid_prev)) { if ($eid_prev != 975 && RecommendedEntry_getEntryData ($eid_prev)) { RecommendedEntry_updateIndexFile (975, $eid_prev, 0 /*incoming_from*/); RecommendedEntry_updateIndexFile ($eid_prev, 975, 1 /*outgoing_to*/); } } else { RecommendedEntry_updateIndexFile (975, 975, 0 /*incoming_from*/); } } RecommendedEntry_incoming (); function RecommendedEntry_outgoing () { setcookie ('mtrcmnd_eid', 975, time () + 2592000, '/'); } RecommendedEntry_outgoing (); function RecommendedEntry_initialize ($mode = 0) { global $RecommendedEntry_table; $RecommendedEntry_table = array (); $fp = @fopen ($_SERVER['DOCUMENT_ROOT'].'/ReData/975.txt', 'r'); if ($fp) { if (flock ($fp, LOCK_SH | LOCK_NB)) { while (! feof ($fp) && ($buf = fgets ($fp))) { list ($_eid, $_n0, $_n1) = preg_split ("[\t\r\n]", $buf); if (975 == $_eid) continue; if ($mode == 1) $RecommendedEntry_table{$_eid} = $_n0; else if ($mode == 2) $RecommendedEntry_table{$_eid} = $_n1; else $RecommendedEntry_table{$_eid} = $_n0 + $_n1; } arsort ($RecommendedEntry_table, SORT_NUMERIC); } fclose ($fp); } } function RecommendedEntry_GetEntry ($_index) { global $RecommendedEntry_table; foreach ($RecommendedEntry_table as $eid => $count) { if (--$_index) continue; $entry = RecommendedEntry_getEntryData ($eid); if ($entry) $entry['count'] = $count; return $entry; } } ?> ADB, IFPRI (2012) The Quiet Revolution in Staple Food Value Chains | Good Practices | People's Republic of China | APIP - Asia-Pacific Information Platform on Food Security

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ADB, IFPRI (2012) The Quiet Revolution in Staple Food Value Chains

  • The PRC’s rapid yield increase can largely be attributed to the adoption of hybrid rice. The PRC’s hybrid rice program was started in 1963, and hybrid seed was released commercially in 1976 (Gulati, Chen, and Shreedhar 2010). Less than 1% of rice area was planted to hybrid rice in 1976, but this increased to about 54% in 1991 and about 63% in 2008 (Li, Xin, and Yuan 2009).
  • The PRC produced two main kinds of rice: japonica and indica. The area planted to japonica had expanded from 11% of the total rice area in 1980 to 29% by 2000 (Hansen et al. 2002) and about 29%–30% during the 2000s (Lee and Kim 2007).
  • The government had a substantial role in the ricemarket.  The role consisted of selling subsidized seed and fertilizer to farmers; providing some subsidized credit; providing public extension services; and, in the PRC, giving direct subsidies to farmers.
  • The survey’s findings indicate that a transformational modernization is under way in these staple food chains, albeit at different speeds. In the rice value chain transformation, the leader is the PRC, which appears to be changing faster or has transformed further, especially in the remarkable development of its rice milling sector.
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